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Melissa A Cyders Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Psychology
Impulsivity Neuroscience (IN) Lab
Licensed Clinical Psychology, HSPP
2003 B.A. Psychology, Ohio University
2003 B.A. Spanish, Ohio University
2005, M.S. Clinical Psychology, University of Kentucky
2009 Clinical Psychology Internship, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System and the University of Michigan Medical School
2009 Ph.D. Clinical Psychology, University of Kentucky
For those interested in my research laboratory:
I do have open undergraduate research assistant positions.
I do have an opening for a new Ph.D. student into my laboratory for fall 2018 admission.
I do not currently have open post-doc positions.
For more information about my lab, please see the pages for my current graduate students:
Davis VanderVeen (on internship at Salt Lake VA)
Psy I-535 Clinical Neuroscience, Spring semester, even numbered years
Psy B-203 Ethics and Diversity in Psychology
Here I will highlight some of my contributions to science, with selected relevant publications listed (with student authors underlined).
1. Multidimensionality of impulsivity.
It is well established that impulsivity is a multi-faceted trait, composed of multiple separate tendencies toward risk taking. One of the overarching goals of my research program has been to better understand the separate facets underlying the construct of impulsivity and to show how the use of these separate facets leads to better prediction of risk-taking behaviors. My research has supported the use of the UPPS-P Model of Impulsive Behavior, which posits that impulsivity is comprises five separate, though related, traits: sensation seeking, which refers to the tendency to seek out new and exciting experiences and sensations; lack of perseverance, which refers to the tendency to not finish what one has started; lack of deliberation, which refers to the tendency to not think about things before doing them; negative urgency, which refers to the tendency to act rashly in the face of extreme negative emotions; and positive urgency, which refers to the tendency to act rashly in the face of extreme positive emotions. Although research generally supports the role of impulsivity in multiple risk taking processes, there still remain many inconsistencies across studies. It is my view that the inconsistencies in the data have been mostly driven by two factors: (1) lack of consensus in how to best define impulsivity; and (2) use of definitions that involve multiple aspects in one measure, both of which contribute to inconsistencies and masking of important relationships. Much of my subsequent work has supported these contentions: we have shown that by using the specific UPPS-P traits, different aspects of risk taking are more reliably predicted than by using conceptualizations of impulsivity that confound many different traits. Additionally, we have found that there is very little overlap between impulsivity traits and behavioral lab tasks thought to assess impulsive action. In fact, this work suggests that the term “impulsivity” is not meaningful and that using more specific conceptualizations will avoid problems associated with the use of varied or combined conceptualizations of impulsivity.
Select relevant publications:
- Cyders, M. A., Smith, G. T., Spillane, N. S., Fischer, S., Annus, A. M., & Peterson, C. (2007). Integration of impulsivity and positive mood to predict risky behavior: Development and validation of a measure of positive urgency. Psychological Assessment, 19, 107-118. doi:10.1037/1040-35220.127.116.11
- Smith, G. T., Fischer, S., Cyders, M. A., Annus, A. M., Spillane, N. S., & McCarthy, D. M. (2007). On the validity of discriminating among impulsivity-like traits. Assessment, 14, 155-170.doi:10.1177/1073191106295527
- Cyders, M.A. & Coskunpinar, A. (2011). Measurement of constructs using self-report and behavioral lab tasks: Is there overlap in nomothetic span and construct representation for impulsivity? Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 965 – 982. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.06.001
- Cyders, M. A. (2013). Impulsivity and the sexes: Measurement and construct invariance of the UPPS-P impulsivity scale. Assessment, 20, 86 – 97. doi:10.1177/1073191111428762
2. Role of emotion-based impulsivity as a common, transdiagnostic endophenotype for maladaptive risk taking.
My work has suggested that negative and positive urgency are the most clinically relevant impulsivity-related traits for a wide range of problematic levels of risk taking behaviors. Although the experience of emotions is generally adaptive and serves to motivate behaviors, extreme emotions can be maladaptive for individuals, especially when the emotions leads one to behavior that does not address the precipitating need or event of the emotional experience. The tendency to act rashly in response to extreme negative or positive emotions is associated with a wide range of maladaptive behaviors, including alcohol use and abuse, risky sexual behaviors, binge eating (negative urgency only), gambling, compulsive cellular phone use, drug use, and nicotine use. Urgency is also highly represented across multiple different categories and diagnoses in the DSM-5 and many of these clinical groups have been characterized for their high level of urgency, including Borderline Personality Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Binge-Eating Disorder. We have suggested the urgency is a common, transdiagnostic endophenotype for a wide range of maladaptive behaviors and clinical disorders that is a prime marker of mental health risk, representing increased physiological reactivity to emotional cues and an increased likelihood of responding to emotions with maladaptive and risky behaviors. Given the many criticisms of the DSM, including heterogeneity within diagnoses (leading to individuals with the same diagnosis having different behavioral manifestations) and commonality across diagnostic categories (leading to high rates of comorbidity), there is a strong movement in the field to conceptualize traits and disorders in terms of homogeneous dimensions. Use of a single score to reflect multidimensional traits or symptoms can lead to decreased ability to reliably treat, predict, and identify those at risk. Targeting urgency in treatment could lead to the development of psychotherapy or pharmacological therapies to alleviate emotion-based rash action that could be useful across many DSM-5 diagnoses.
Select relevant publications:
- Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G.T. (2007). Mood-based rash action and its components: Positive and negative urgency. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 839-850. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.02.008
- Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Emotion-based dispositions to rash action: Positive and negative urgency. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 807-828. doi:10.1037/a0013341. PMCID: PMC2705930
- Settles, R., Fischer, S., Cyders, M. A., Combs, J., Gunn, R., & Smith, G. T. (2012). Negative urgency: A Personality predictor of externalizing behavior characterized by neuroticism, low conscientiousness, and disagreeableness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 160 – 172. doi:10.1037/a0024948
- Coskunpinar, A., Dir, A. L., & Cyders, M. A. (2013). Multidimensionality of impulsivity and alcohol use: A Meta-analysis using the UPPS-P model of impulsivity. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37, 1441 - 1450. doi:10.1111/acer.12131. PMCID: PMC3732812
3. Underlying neurobiological and neurocognitive mechanisms of emotion-based rash action.
My more recent work has focused on identifying the underlying neurobiological and neurocognitive mechanisms of emotion-based rash action, with the goal of better understanding mechanisms contributing to risk in order to identify prime intervention targets. In addition to other research in this areaI have begun to examine neurocognitive mechanisms that relate to urgency. Although reviews of the literature show little overlap between urgency and behavioral neurocognitive tasks, there have been too few studies to date to establish this fact. Our initial work suggests urgency is only related to neurocognitive performance (e.g., attentional biases as measured through eye tracking) when assessed during mood states. Additionally, although work using self-reporting of mood has suggested no relationship between urgency and the experience of more extreme or labile emotions, data assessed via functional magnetic resonance imaging has suggested the negative urgency is related to increased activation in limbic regions (the left amygdala and right orbitofrontal cortex) in response to negatively valenced images, suggesting that urgency is associated with hyperactivity in limbic regions when exposed to emotional stimuli. Additionally, our work suggests that urgency is associated with hyperactivity in reward regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex) when presented with alcohol reward cues. Importantly, the relationship between this hyperactivity and self-reported risk taking is mediated by negative urgency, suggesting that physiological hyperreactivity to emotional and reward stimuli is related to risk taking by increasing the tendency toward rash action in negative emotional states. Positive urgency has, to date, been largely unrelated to physiological reactivity to emotion or reward cues in our data.
Select relevant publications:
- Cyders, M. A., Dzemidzic, M., Eiler, W. J. A., Coskunpinar, A., Karyadi, K., & Kareken, D. A. (2013). Negative urgency and ventromedial prefrontal cortex responses to alcohol cues: fMRI evidence of emotion-based impulsivity. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 38, 409 – 417. doi:10.1111/acer.12266. PMCID: PMC4055534
- Coskunpinar, A., Dir, A. L., Karyadi, K. A., Koo, C.S., & Cyders, M. A. (2013). Mechanisms underlying the relationship between negative affectivity and problematic alcohol use. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 4, 263-278. doi:10.5127/jep.029612
- Coskunpinar, A., & Cyders, M. A. (2013). Impulsivity and substance-related attentional bias: A meta-analytic review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 133, 1 – 14. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.008
- Cyders, M. A., Dzemidzic, M., Eiler, W. J. A., Coskunpinar, A., Karyadi, K., & Kareken, D. A. (2014). Negative urgency mediates the relationship between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex activation to negative emotional stimuli and general risk-taking. Cerebral Cortex, bhu123. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu123. PMC Journal – In Process.
5. Training of students.
Additionally, much of my work focuses on the training of students for research careers. Of my peer reviewed journal articles and book chapters since beginning my assistant professorship at IUPUI, my students are first authors on 17 journal articles and on 8 book chapters. Altogether, my students are co-authors on 29 journal articles, 12 book chapters and other non-refereed scholarly activities, and numerous conference presentations and counting. Many of these publications are in high impact journals. During my mentorship, my students have received multiple regional and national awards and grants, including two competitive F31 grants from NIAAA for my doctoral students, Allyson Dir and Alexandra Hershberger.
Select relevant publications:
- Dir, A. L., Coskunpinar, A., & Cyders, M. A. (2014). A Meta-Analytic review of the relationship between impulsivity and risky sexual behavior in adolescents across age, gender, and race. Clinical Psychology Review, 34, 551 – 562. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2014.08.004
- Dir, A. L., & Cyders, M. A. (2014). Risks, Risk Factors, and Outcomes Associated with Phone and Internet Sexting among University Students in the United States. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1-10. doi:10.1007/s10508-014-0370-7
- VanderVeen, J. D., Plawecki, M. H., Millward, J. B., Hays, J., Kareken, D. A., O’Connor, S., & Cyders, M. A. (2016). Negative urgency, mood induction, and alcohol seeking behaviors. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 165,151-158. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.05.026
VanderVeen, J. D., Hershberger, A. R., & Cyders, M. A. (in press). UPPS-P model impulsivity and marijuana use behaviors in adolescents: A Meta-analytic review. Drug & Alcohol Dependence.